When we say system, especially if used in describing parts of a machine, we would often refer to a group of components working together to achieve a single goal. Every vehicle is composed of different kinds of this system, among them is the auto air conditioning system. As expected, the AC system is composed of many parts that functions hand in hand to achieve a single goal, and that goal is to cool the vehicle's interior. Among the major parts that every auto AC system is made up of is the AC compressor, condenser, evaporator, receiver-dryer (or accumulator) and the thermal expansion valve (or orifice tube).
The different parts that make up an auto air conditioning system are all important for the system's function. In every system, however, there is always a single component that is considered the most important. This component is often termed as the heart of the system. In the auto air conditioning system, this component is the AC compressor.
The AC compressor is a mechanical pump that is driven by a belt attached to the vehicle's engine. Like the human heart, the AC compressor pumps fluid so that it would flow in a closed loop through the various parts of the system. Instead of blood, however, the AC compressor pumps refrigerant, which is the main element responsible for absorbing all the heat that accumulates inside the vehicle's cabin.
The AC compressor basically lies on the logical center of the auto AC system, in between its high pressure side and its low pressure side. From the low pressure side, specifically from the evaporator or in some cases the accumulator, the compressor sucks in low-pressure refrigerant gas. The compressor would then compress this gas, increasing both its pressure and temperature. After that, the high pressure refrigerant would then be discharged to the AC condenser, which is a major component of the high pressure side of the AC system. From the condenser, the cooled refrigerant would proceed to the various other parts of the system, then to the evaporator, thus circulating in a closed loop.